[1] THE MASTER said: “In governing, cleave to good; as the northstar holds his place, and the multitude of stars revolve upon him.”

[2] The Master said: “To sum up the three hundred songs in a word, they are free from evil thought.”

[3] The Master said: “Guide the people by law, subdue them by punishment; they may shun crime, but will be void of shame. Guide them by example, subdue them by courtesy; they will learn shame, and come to be good.”

[4] The Master said: “At fifteen, I was bent on study; at thirty, I could stand; at forty, doubts ceased; at fifty, I understood the laws of Heaven; at sixty, my ears obeyed me; at seventy, I could do as my heart lusted, and never swerve from right.”

[5] Meng Yi asked the duty of a son.

The Master said: “Obedience.”

As Fan Ch'ih〖A disciple.〗 was driving him, the Master said: “Meng-sun〖Meng Yi.〗 asked me the duty of a son; I answered ‘Obedience.’”

“What did ye mean?” said Fan Ch'ih.

“To serve our parents with courtesy whilst they live,” said the Master; “to bury them with all courtesy when they die; and to worship them with all courtesy.”

[6] Meng Wu asked the duty of a son.

The Master said: “What weighs on your father and mother is concern for your health.”

[7] Tzu-yu〖A disciple.〗 asked the duty of a son.

The Master said: “To-day a man is called dutiful if he keep his father and mother. But we keep both our dogs and horses, and unless we honour parents, is it not all one?”

[8] Tzu-hsia asked the duty of a son.

The Master said: “Our manner is the hard part. For the young to be a stay in toil, and leave the wine and cakes to their elders, is this to fulfil their duty?”

[9] The Master said: “If I talk all day to Hui,〖The Master’s favourite disciple, Yen Yüan.〗 like a dullard, he never stops me. But when he is gone, if I pry into his life, I find he can do what I say. No, Hui is no dullard.”

[10] The Master said: “Look at a man’s acts; watch his motives; find out what pleases him: can the man evade you? Can the man evade you?”

[11] The Master said: “Who keeps the old akindle and adds new knowledge is fitted to be a teacher.”

[12] The Master said: “A gentleman is not a vessel.”

[13] Tzu-kung asked, What is a gentleman?

The Master said: “He puts words into deed first, and sorts what he says to the deed.”

[14] The Master said: “A gentleman is broad and fair: the vulgar are biassed and petty.”

[15] The Master said: “Study without thought is vain: thought without study is dangerous.”

[16] The Master said: “Work on strange doctrines does harm.”

[17] The Master said: “Yu,〖The disciple, Tzu-lu.〗 shall I teach thee what is understanding? To know what we know, and know what we do not know, that is understanding.”

[18] Tzu-chang〖A disciple.〗studied with an eye to pay. The Master said: “Listen much, keep silent when in doubt, and always take heed of the tongue; thou wilt make few mistakes. See much, beware of pitfalls, and always give heed to thy walk; thou wilt have little to rue. If thy words are seldom wrong, thy deeds leave little to rue, pay will follow.”

[19] Duke Ai〖Duke of Lu, during Confucius’ closing years.〗asked: “What should be done to make the people loyal?”

Confucius answered: “Exalt the straight, set aside the crooked, the people will be loyal. Exalt the crooked, set aside the straight, the people will be disloyal.”

[20] Chi K'ang〖Head of the Chi clan during Confucius’ closing years.〗 asked how to make the people lowly, faithful, and willing.

The Master said: “Behave with dignity, they will be lowly: be pious and merciful, they will be faithful: exalt the good, teach the unskilful, they will grow willing.”

[21] One said to Confucius: “Why are ye not in power, Sir?”

The Master answered: “What does the book say of a good son? ‘An always dutiful son, who is a friend to his brothers, showeth the way to rule.’ This also is to rule. What need to be in power?”

[22] The Master said: “Without truth I know not how man can live. A cart without a crosspole, a carriage without harness, how could they be moved?”

[23] Tzu-chang asked whether we can know what is to be ten generations hence.

The Master said: “The Yin〖The three dynasties that had ruled China up till the time of Confucius.〗inherited the manners of the Hsia; the harm and the good that they wrought them is known. The Chou inherited the manners of the Yin; the harm and the good that they wrought them is known. And we may know what is to be, even an hundred generations hence, when others follow Chou.”

[24] The Master said: “To worship the ghosts of strangers is fawning. To see the right and not do it is want of courage.”

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